Let's begin with a little mental gymnastics. Take a moment to decide on your definition of the words "influence" and "persuasion." Then, decide which of the following statements falls under your definition of Influence and which falls under Persuasion:
Choosing words and phrases to communicate ideas that strike a responsive chord in a target audience
Socializing ideas to bring all the issues to light and earn buy-in
Giving others a voice in the decision-making process
Learning what keeps a person or group of people up at night
Providing assistance or resources without any expectation of reciprocity
Brokering meaningful relationships between unconnected groups
Using a decision-matrix to steer a conversation through a path of predictable choices
Orchestrating environmental conditions in which to interact with others in order to optimize the likelihood of a desirable outcome
Listening and paraphrasing back what was said
Delivering bad news sooner than later
Giving others credit whenever possible
Maintaining a track record of consistent success in a particular area
The less distinction between your definitions of influence and persuasion the higher degree of difficulty you probably experienced trying to separate the above statements. From a purely semantic point of view, it's not such a big deal to use these terms interchangeably. From a leadership perspective however, the distinction can be the difference between your team carrying you on their shoulders after a victory or having them stuff you in a locker before practice.
Based on my definitions, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, & 12 are squarely under the influence umbrella. Items 1, 7, 8 fall under persuasion. The others can go either way depending upon the circumstances or timing of a situation.
The way I see it,
Persuasion is presenting a case in such a way as to sway the opinion of others, make people believe certain information, or motivate a decision. Marketing programs can formally teach persuasion techniques.
Influence is having a vision of the optimum outcome for a situation or organization and then, without using force or coercion, motivating people to work together toward making the vision a reality.
Persuasion can be used to spur someone to action or to make a decision without actually earning their sincere buy-in. With influence, dedicating time to win someone's heart or earn mind-share is a prerequisite to the process of inspiring them to take action or make a particular decision.
TIMING IS EVERYTHING
In time-sensitive circumstances, positive persuasion techniques are a handy means for expediting results. However, for most leaders, influence is the preferred means to a productive end. This is because influence is based on a foundation of trust and credibility that has been solidified over time. If persuasion techniques are applied in situations best suited for influence, the persuader is often perceived as manipulative and any compliance is temporary at best.
Consider this: If someone doesn't have significant influence with you, yet they convince you to do something, has the person persuaded you or did they simply facilitate a process by which you persuaded yourself?
Persuasion used indiscriminately can easily be described as the ability to "sell ice to Eskimos." But, do the Eskimos trust you or buy from you again when they realize you've sold them something they don't really need? How comfortable do you feel with that decision even a few short minutes after you make it? Chances are you have doubts. Because you don't necessarily trust the person who persuaded you, you experience misgivings or "buyer's remorse." On the other hand, a strong leader who takes the time to reduce any uncertainty before encouraging others to act or make a decision can use persuasion techniques without eliciting such negative feelings.
Persuasion techniques, when applied with integrity and a sincere intention to make a positive contribution in an individual's life or to the betterment of the group, are a powerful lever for moving the decision-making process along. In situations where we've made the proper investment in relationships, we can use persuasion techniques such as framing, fairness, and timing to show respect for the people who deem us influential.
If persuasion is the hammer you pull out the moment you see a nail, influence is the apprenticeship and training you go through long before you attempt to build a house. Influence grows out of well nurtured relationships. It's the end-result of actions, behaviors, and intentions geared toward building trust, establishing credibility, and adding value. Persuasion is more of an "in the moment" skill. It's the combination of charisma, talent, and technique that can get things done without preamble. Ironically, despite its expediency, persuasion is actually best received by people who have faith in the persuader's degree of influence.
When trust is present, influence increases and persuasion is positive.